Many different conditions can lead to chronic heart failure with possible overlap between categories. Causes include:
Coronary artery disease (most common).
Cardiomyopathies:Familial; Infective; Immune-mediated(for example autoimmune); Toxins (for example alcohol or cocaine); Pregnancy; Infiltrative (for example sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, haemochromatosis, connective tissue disease).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers (may worsen pre-existing heart failure).
Paget's disease; and
Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency.
(for example aortic stenosis).
(for example atrial fibrillation and other tachyarrythmias).
End-stage chronic kidney disease; and