Heart failure symptoms can be vague and can easily attributed to other causes. This often leads to mis-diagnosis and/or late diagnosis of heart failure and the reason why 80% of people are diagnosed in hospital.
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea ;
Reduced exercise tolerance ;
Fatigue, tiredness, increased time to recover after exercise;
Nocturnal cough ;
Bloated feeling ;
Loss of appetite ;
Confusion (especially in the elderly) ;
Syncope Tachycardia; and
Elevated jugular venous pressure;
Third heart sound (gallop rhythm) ; and
Laterally displaced apical impulse.
Weight gain (>2 kg/week);
Weight loss (in advanced HF);
Tissue wasting (cachexia);
Peripheral oedema (ankle, sacral, scrotal);
Narrow pulse pressure.
Source: ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. European Heart Journal (2021) 42, 3599; 3726 doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehab368.